view of the caves at Yungang, Shanxi, with the colossal Buddha of Cave 20 in
the foreground. 460s–480s CE. From Yungang Shiku Yanjiuyuan, Yungang shiku, 87–88.
Photograph by permission of Wenwu Press.
interior wall of Cave 5, Yungang. 486–495 CE. The twin Buddhas, Sakyamuni and Prabhutaratna, can
be seen in a small niche in the sidewall of the window above the arched
entryway, and the two monks meditating under a tree are just below, on the
sidewall of the entryway. From Yungang Shiku Wenwu Baoguansuo, Yungang shiku, vol.
1, pl. 42. Photograph by permission of Wenwu Press.
colossal Buddha carved out of rock at the former Kaihua Monastery, Mount Meng,
Taiyuan, Shanxi. After 551 CE. The height of the sitting body of the Buddha measures
approximately 30 meters. The original head had long been missing and was replaced
in 2008 with a concrete one, 12 meters high. Photograph courtesy of Jungmin Ha.
current monastic buildings at the site of the former Huayan Monastery on the
rising hill. From Guo Zhicheng, “Wutai Shan,” fig. 1. Photograph courtesy of
Detail of Foguang Monastery in the
mural depicting the panorama of Mount Wutai on the west wall of Mogao Cave 61,
Dunhuang, Gansu. Mid-10th century ce.
From Dunhuang Wenwu Yanjiusuo, Dunhuang Mogaoku, vol. 5, pl. 52. Photographby permissionof Wenwu
Site of the former Monastery of
Great Faith in Vulture Peak (Dafu Lingjiusi), named after the hill Vulture
Peak, on which the monastery was built. The monastery was renamed Great Huayan
Monastery (Da Huayansi) in the early 700s CE.
During the Ming dynasty, its components were separated into several individual
monasteries, which continue into modern times. Photograph courtesy of Guo
“true-presence” (zhenrong) icon of Mañjuśrī riding a lion. Painted white
marble. Mid-8th century. Shanxi Provincial Museum. Photograph by author.